Monday, November 9, 2009

What are the Barriers to Development in India (Intrinsic & Extrinsic)?

  • Corruption: government corruption is apparently a pervasive problem within India. Economic reforms saw a reduction of corruption, but a recent study by Transparency International found that more than half of Indian governmental officials have been bribed at some point to get a job done in public office. The bottom line, it seems, is that the vast majority of the Indian government is still untrustworthy and convoluted with corruption.
  • Unemployment: 6.8% of the population is unemployed (ranks 85th in the world, yet again after much less developed countries). The government has moved to try to fix the problem, but their solution has been to urbanize and relocate people. However, since India's liberalization the problem has been underlined and it has become obvious that the government needs to better education and put political pressure on further reforms. The mass urbanization stems other problems like poverty and overpopulation.
  • Regional differences: India's different regions are growing steadily more isolated and sharp regional differences are growing. this is because different regions' economies are changing at different rats in terms of per capita income, poverty, availability of infrastructure, availability of natural resources, and socio-economic development.
  • Poverty: A BIG PROBLEM. In 2005, 14.3% of the population earned less than $1 a day. one quarter of the population lives below the poverty line. Thirteen percent of the global poor now live in India.

Strategies for Sustainablility

  • Japan: Since Japan is a relatively stable county, perhaps the best way to sustain it is for it to continue what it is currently doing. It is a leader in technology, ranging from consumer electronics to automobiles, which contributes greatly to its wealth. As long as it continues its current trend, it should be able to sustain itself.
  • India: India needs to find a solution for its growing industry and population or else the rapid increase in people and manufacturing will take its toll on the environment and people. India needs to (1) do something about poverty because it is a major issue, (2) empower people because though India has many well educated professionals many people are still suffering from the mass influx into cities, and (3) set environmental standards on resources and regulating industry (all of these include fixing governmental corruption and division). The Planning Commission of India (PCI) is responsible for creating the Five Year Plans, which aims to complete small, attainable goals to better the nation such as reducing the poverty level, putting all children in school, reducing gender gaps in literacy and wage rates, reduce population growth, increase literacy, reduce infant and maternal mortality rate, increase forest cover, give all villages access to potable drinking water, and to clean all major rivers. Civil Service Reforms have also been put into effect to improve honesty and efficiency of the public administration at all levels.

Is the Growth, Development, and Government Sustainable?

  • Japan: Growth is obviously not sustainable, and the population is already shrinking. Development and government however appear to be very healthy. Japan continues to be one of the most technologically advanced countries on the globe, and retains a relatively stable government. While the population dips, Japan continues to advance in other areas.
  • India: No. The population growth and industrial development are off the charts, and the government has not been able to control it. Some economic reforms after liberalization have helped, but haven't fixed the problem because India's government is still corrupt. As a complex, overpopulated, and diverse society, many people see it as a microcosm of the future United States and World as the global population steadily grows -- and things aren't looking too good. At India's rate of growth, environmental problems, disease, and poverty are MAJOR threats the land and people. The Environmental Sustainability Index rates India 101 out of 146 as a place with sustainable growth, drawing on ESI's evaluation off India's health, governance, technology, and international relations compared to other countries. India represents the difficult path all developing countries in today's world must take because, now, countries have to remember the environment when becoming developed through the use of heavy machinery. India's population is supposed to overtake that of China by 2030, but estimates show that the glaciers of the Himalayas may no longer even be able to supply the Ganges (India's largest river and water source) by that same year.

Fed, Fueled, and Watered

  • Japan: Japan is a relatively rich country and as such there is more than enough food, clean water, and fuel available. Japanese cuisine is largely seafood, which is most likely a result if its many miles of coastline. Most of Japan's energy production is from hydroelectric power, liquid natural gas, and nuclear power plants. Japan's energy consumption is about 60% from oil alone. Ten major power companies provide all of japans electricity.
  • India: Well... a lot of people suffer malnutrition, even fewer can really use fuel, and finally the water is very polluted. Since India's population and industry are increasing so fast its unsustainable. The fact of the matter is, a quarter of the population lives below the poverty line. Services account for more than half of India's output and employ one third of the population. More than half of the working population is in agriculture. India capitalizes on its large english-speaking population to become a major exporter of software services and workers (think about when you call information because your Microsoft computer is broken...). Water in India, as stated earlier, is extremely polluted. It is estimated that 21% of the communicable diseases are caused by poor water quality. Almost 800 million people do not have clean water to drink.

Major Economic Engines

  • Japan:
Industries: Among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, and processed foods

Agriculture: rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit, pork, poultry, dairy products, eggs, and fish
  • India: major industries in India include, but are not limited to, exports such as textiles, pharmaceuticals, and coal. Other industries are chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, petroleum, and software.
Agriculture: Rice, wheat, cotton, tea, potatoes, dairy products, sheep, poultry, and fish.

Major Natural Resources

  • Japan: Japan has relatively little natural resources, but its major crops include wheat, barley, oats, apples, tea, and citrus fruit. Natural gas is also present in Japan.
  • India: India's major natural resources include coal (India has the fourth largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, and arable land. Most of the coal is of poor quality because of high ash and moisture content.

What Do Most of the People Do?

  • Japan:
Labor Force - By Occupation:
Agriculture: 4.4%
Industry: 27.9%
Services: 66.4%
The majority of Japan's labor force are involved in some type of services.
  • India:
Labor Force - By Occupation
Agriculture: 60%
Industry: 12%
Services: 28%

Where Do Most People Live?

  • Japan:
  • India: India's population is, on average, about 324 persons per square kilometer. Almost half of India's population live in five states: Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, and Andhra Pradesh.

Is the Country Growing or Shrinking?

  • Japan's population is slowly shrinking as can be inferred by the fact that the total fertility rate (TFR) is only 1.21 (in most cases, it must be over 2 for there to be any population growth). The growth rate is -0.191% (Ranks 218th in the world).
  • India's population is rapidly increasing. The growth rate is 1.548% (Ranks 84th in the world behind other Asian, African, and South/Central American Countries). India's total fertility rate is 2.72 children born/ woman.

Per Capita Income & GDP

  • Japan:
GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $4.329 trillion (Ranks 4th in the world)
GDP (Official Exchange Rate): $4.924 trillion
GDP - Real Growth Rate: -0.7% (Ranks 206th in the world)
GDP - Per Capita (PPP): $34,000 (Ranks 37th in the world)
GDP - Composition by Sector:
Agriculture: 1.5%
Industry: 26.3%
Services: 72.3%
  • India:
GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $3.279 trillion (Ranks 5th in the World)
GDP (Official Exchange Rate): 1.21 trillion
GDP - Real Growth Rate: 7.4% (Ranks 28th in world)
GDP - Per Capita (PPP): $2,900 (Ranks 166th in World)
GDP - Composition by Sector:
Agriculture: 17.6%
Industry: 29%
Services: 53.4%

Population Distribution

  • Japan:
0-14 years: 13.5% (male 8,804,465/ female 8,344,800)
15-64 years: 64.3% (male 41,187,425/ female 40,533,876)
65 years and over: 22.2% (male 11,964,694/ female 16,243,419)
  • India:
0-14 years: 31.1 % (male 190,075,426/ female 172,799,553)
15-64 years: 63.6 % (male 381,446,079/ female 359,802,209)
65 years and over: 5.3 % (male 29,364,920/ female 32,591,030)

Total Fertility Rate

  • Japan: 1.21 children born/woman (Ranks 217th in the world)
  • India: 2.72 children born/ woman (ranks 83rd in the world)
* important to note: most of the countries before India belong to Africa and South America

Life Expectancy

  • Japan:
total population: 82.12 years (Ranks 3rd in the world)
male: 78.8 years
female: 85.62 years
  • India:
total population: 69.89 years (Ranks 145th in the world)
male: 67.46 years
female: 72.61 years

Infant Mortality Rate

  • Japan:
total: 2.79 deaths/1,000 live births (Ranks 221st in the world)
male: 2.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.58 deaths/1,000 live births
  • India:
total: 30.15 deaths/1,000 live births (Ranks 73rd in the world)
male: 34.61 deaths/ 1,000 live births
female: 25.17 deaths/ 1,000 live births

Age Structure Diagrams

  • Japan

  • India: The progression (bulge) of the people getting older is apparent as time goes on (form 2010 to 2020 and finally 2050). In 2050, all those kids have kids which contributes to the massive population growth.

Projected Population

  • Japan
  • India: The country with the second largest population in the world, India is supposed to overtake the leader, China, by the year 2030. There are more children under five years old in India than the whole population of France.

Total Population

  • Japan: 127,078,679 (Ranks 10th in the world)
  • India: 1,166,079,217 (Ranks 2nd in the world. wow)
That's a huge difference, and India is still developing. India was the second country to pass the billion person marker... right behind China.

Monday, November 2, 2009


First Post! Haha!